Details: This study was based on the same 64 overweight, post-menopausal women in the study above who were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan or a low-fat NCEP diet for 14 weeks.
This study was done in two cohorts. All participants were offered weekly group nutrition support for the first 14 weeks of the study.
However, the first cohort didn’t receive any nutritional support after the first 14 weeks, whereas the rest continued with bimonthly support group meetings for one year.
All women were followed for two years. No participant was prescribed any calorie restriction goals, and both groups were encouraged to eat until they were full.
Results: The vegan group lost 10.8 lbs (4.9 kg) after one year, compared to 4 lbs (1.8 kg) in the NCEP group.
Over the next year, both group regained some weight. At the end of the two-year study, the weight loss was 6.8 lbs (3.1 kg) in the vegan group and 1.8 lbs (0.8 kg) in the NCEP group.
Regardless of the diet assignment, the women who received group support sessions lost more weight than those who didn’t receive them.
Conclusions: Women on a low-fat vegan diet lost more weight after one and two years, compared to those following a low-fat diet. Also, women receiving group support were better able to lose weight and maintain it.
Details: 99 participants with type 2 diabetes were recruited and pair-matched based on their hemoglobin A1C levels.
Each pair was then randomly assigned to follow a low-fat vegan diet or a diet based on the 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines for 22 weeks.
Portion sizes, calorie intake and carbs were unrestricted on the vegan diet. Those on the ADA diet were instructed to cut 500–1,000 calories per day from their normal diet.
Everyone received a vitamin B12 supplement, and alcohol was limited to one serving per day for women and two servings per day for men.
All participants were also provided an initial one-on-one session with a registered dietitian and attended weekly nutrition group meetings for the duration of the study.
Results: Both groups reduced calorie intakes by approximately 400 calories per day, despite only the ADA group being instructed to do so.
Protein and fat intakes also decreased in both groups. However, participants in the vegan group consumed 152% more carbs than the ADA group.
Participants following the vegan diet doubled their fiber intake, whereas the amount of fiber consumed by those in the ADA group remained the same.
By the end of the 22-week study period, the vegan group lost 12.8 lbs (5.8 kg), which was 134% more weight than the ADA group.
Both groups reduced their total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels.
What’s more, the vegan participants’ hemoglobin A1C levels dropped by 0.96 points, which was 71% more than the ADA participants’ levels.
Conclusions: Both diets helped participants lose weight and improve their blood sugar and cholesterol levels. However, the vegan diet caused more weight loss and a greater reduction in blood sugar than the ADA diet.
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